The Chinese believe that deer live for hundreds of years and thus use them as symbols of longevity. In traditional pharmacology, powdered stag horn can be used as a restorative medicine or even an aphrodisiac. The Japanese consider deer to be messengers of gods and as such keep them within shrine precincts. The artist, Mori Tetsuzan, was adopted by his uncle, Mori Sosen, Japan's most famous painter of monkeys. He was also a pupil of Maruyama O_kyo, founder of the Maruyama School and champion of a new naturalistic style.