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Title

: An Ivory Diptych

Author

Minneapolis Institute of Arts

Date

1983

Institution Minneapolis Institute of Arts
The superb French ivory diptych acquired in 1983 by The Minneapolis Institute of Arts exemplifies the finest gothic sculpture of the second half of the fourteenth century. It is a three-tiered diptych carved with scenes from the life of Christ, and it belongs to one of two iconographic groups of large-scale ivories produced in Paris between 1365 and 1390. In the first group, called Passion diptychs, the scenes begin with Christ's Entry into Jerusalem and end with the Crucifixion. The second group, to which the Minneapolis ivory belongs, includes scenes of the Infancy and Afterlife of Christ, in addition to those portraying the Passion. The Passion diptychs are thought to be slightly earlier in date. Some of each type were apparently made in the same ivory workshop.The Minneapolis diptych is far from unknown. In the late nineteenth century, it was in the collection of the curator of decorative arts of the Louvre, Felix Ravaisson-Mollien. It was shown in the “Exposition rétrospective de l'art français” in 1900, where it was singled out by the critical eye of Gaston Migeon.By 1903, when the Ravaisson-Mollien collection was sold, the diptych had already passed into the possession of Paul Garnier in Paris and was published in Les arts in 1906. At the breakup of the Garnier collection in 1917, the ivory was purchased by the firm of Jacques Seligmann and Company, Paris, and was later sold to the Cranbrook Academy of Art, where it was on view for many years until the dispersal of that collection in 1972. It was purchased at auction by Leopold Blumka of New York and was acquired for Minneapolis from Ruth Blumka in 1983.1By the middle of the thirteenth century, Paris had become the center of ivory production in Europe. Paris and the Ile-de-France were the cradle of the gothic style, and it was to Paris that most of Europe looked for new architectural ideas, for illuminated manuscripts, and for ivories in the latest gothic idiom. By about 1260 the guild regulations of the Paris ivory ateliers had been codified in Etienne Boileau's Livre des Metiers,2 and while ivory was carved in many other centers of Europe, Paris retained the leadership in the medium until the end of the fourteenth century.The style of the ivories produced in Paris was related in general to contemporary stone sculpture. The earliest works were the large diptychs of the “Soissons group,” so called because a major ivory, now in the Victoria and Albert Museum, came from St. Jean-des-Vignes in Soissons.3 These works were strongly influenced by the architectural forms of the mid-thirteenth century and used plate tracery and tall pinnacles as parts of their decorative schemes. Single ivory figures of the Virgin in the thirteenth century followed major stone sculptures, like the Virgin of the trumeau of the north porch of Notre Dame in Paris.4One group or type followed another in the ateliers, changing taste and style in a gradual sequence. The Soissons group was followed by Virgin shrines, in which the wings were carved with tiny scenes of the Virgin's life.5 These works competed for a time with a new type of diptych in which figures within large, spacious scenes took on a monumental quality. This body of work has been called the “rose group” because bands of roses divided the scenes.6 At the same time and continuing later into the fourteenth century came many varieties of smaller ivories with compact, busy scenes under a series of pointed arches.7 The Passion diptychs then appeared as the pendulum of taste swung back to a larger scale with an increased number of multifigured scenes shown in three tiers on each plaque.The large Passion diptychs of the second half of the fourteenth century, as we know from inventories and documents, were expensive and highly regarded at the time they were made. Three appeared in the royal inventory listing the property of King Charles V in 1380. One was described as “ung tableaux d'ivyre, de deux pièces, historiez de la Passion, et garniz d'argent, et est esmaillé d'azur de champ,” showing that the great two-piece ivory was mounted in an expensive frame of silver, enameled in blue.8 The king's brother, the duke of Berry, also owned a Passion diptych, which appeared in his inventory of 1416, and another belonged to the noble lady Marie de Sully in 1409.9 In 1402 one finds that a Passion diptych had entered the treasury of Noyon Cathedral, as a gift of a seigneur of Coucy.10 The reputation of the Passion ivories was deserved: they were impressive in size, exemplary in carving, and popular enough to have remained in style for some forty years.In 1924 Raymond Koechlin asserted that the Passion diptychs were the most important works of the second half of the fourteenth century.11 In his book, Les ivoires gothiques français, he suggested that their size, which harked back to the ivories of the Soissons group of the mid- to late-thirteenth century, their richness compared to works of the earlier fourteenth century, and their new subject matter were major innovations. Koechlin believed that the Passion diptychs, in spite of the differences among them, emanated from a single mind, and he named the innovator the “Passion Master.”It is now generally agreed that there were many shops working with the same format and subject matter. Ideas spread quickly, were borrowed, copied, and recopied by various ateliers when the vogue for a new style arose. From one workshop to another, there were minor variations in format and style, though the main iconographic features of the Passion diptychs remained constant. Certainly many artists were at work in their production. In an example at the Metropolitan Museum, tall, thin, somewhat stiff figures give an overall impression of elegance, while an example in the Victoria and Albert Museum shows broad, rushing figures and gives an effect of bold movement.12 Among the many producers of Passion diptychs, one atelier can be singled out, not because it was the finest, but because more products from that shop seem to have survived; one can surmise that while it may or may not have been the most important shop, it was the most prolific. This shop continues to bear Koechlin's title, the “atelier of the Passion Master.” A typical example is the fine diptych in the Staatliche Museen, Berlin, which has been listed as part of the Prussian Royal Kunstkammer since 1694.The Berlin example reads from the upper left, and shows Christ's Raising of Lazarus, the Entry into Jerusalem, and the Washing of the Feet in the upper register; the Last Supper and the Agony in the Garden in the center; the Arrest of Christ, with Judas hanging, and the Crucifixion in the lower register. Two of the scenes of the Passion—the Arrest and the Crucifixion—also appear in the second group of diptychs, like the Minneapolis example, together with scenes of the Infancy and Afterlife of Christ. The treatment of the trefoil arches above the scenes is similar in both iconographic groups, though there are seven above each scene in the Berlin ivory and only five in the Minneapolis example.In the Arrest scene in Berlin, the figure of St. Peter replacing his sword in its sheath is notable for the great diagonal of the arm and sword, which is countered by a large triangle of drapery covering Peter's right elbow and arm. The exact configuration, as well as the treatment of Peter's robe and left arm, is repeated in the Minneapolis work. In Berlin the next two figures in the background (to the right of St. Peter) are apostles, while in Minneapolis they have been replaced by a single soldier with an ax. Judas, Christ, and Malchus form a similar central group in each. Most notable, however, is the figure of the arresting soldier. In both diptychs he steps forward and seizes Christ with two hands, his lowered left arm taking Christ's left sleeve and his right elbow rising in the air as he grasps Christ's shoulder. It is a dramatic posture, made more unusual by the way the drapery of the figure is handled. His garment is caught up in front at the belt, creating a series of deep folds below the waist and leaving the legs bare. Behind the figure who grasps Christ's arm in each diptych stands another soldier, shown in the Berlin piece full figure with helmet and shield, and represented in the Minneapolis example by a bare head and fold of drapery. The scene terminates in both with the figure of Judas hanging at the right. The similarities suggest that a master model or design served the carvers of the two diptychs.The Crucifixion scenes in the two works are quite different, one occupying half a tier and the other a whole tier. But again there are similarities. In the figure group centering on the fainting Virgin, the postures of the three women are the same, the fold of drapery on the Virgin's right shoulder identical, and the upward glance cast by one of the women toward Christ is similar and also unusual. The other figures are quite different, yet the model for the three Marys in the two ivories was apparently the same. The comparisons suggest, as with the Arrest, that the same shop produced the two groups of ivories at slightly different dates.Little is known about the types of models or drawings that were available as sources of design in the ivory workshops, and so it is difficult to be precise about the working methods of the ivory trade. A few terra-cotta models for ivories have survived, however: one series, found in the Schelde River, is now in the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston; another example is in Liège.13 The Boston terra-cottas follow the designs of a surviving ivory casket in the Musée St. Raymond in Toulouse14 and suggest that these designs were copied in terra-cotta and carried to an ivory workshop in Belgium. The Liège example shows an Adoration of the Magi in typical Paris style but was excavated in Belgium at Liège.While no drawings for ivories are known to exist, one drawing by the itinerant illuminator Jacques Daliwe depicts a subject found in an ivory. Daliwe worked for the duke of Berry between 1400 and 1416, and in his sketchbook in Berlin is the drawing of a hermit seated beside a curving wattle fence, a subject that appears in a French ivory box cover in the Walters Art Gallery, dating from 1340-60.15On the basis of this evidence, it seems probable that both three-dimensional models in terra-cotta, wood, or ivory, as well as drawings, were employed in an ivory atelier. Because certain subjects are repeated by different shops with nearly identical details, one can surmise a certain amount of exchange or copying between shops.An interesting comparison can be made between the Arrest scene of the Minneapolis diptych and the same scene repeated detail for detail on a very coarse ivory now in the Louvre. The ivory has been dated by Gaborit-Chopin between 1360 and 138016 (though I believe that it could be later), and has an important history. It is from a diptych adapted to the covers of a manuscript given by Manuel II Paleologus, the emperor of Constantinople, to the Abbey of St. Denis in 1408. A comparison of the Arrest scene with the Minneapolis ivory shows that the designs are identical, though totally different in execution and quality. Every detail is repeated: the drapery and action of St. Peter, the hand ax held by the soldier, the central group, the arresting soldier, the head and drapery behind him, and the hanging Judas. The trefoil arcade is different, having been reduced to four wider arches in the Louvre example, but it seems certain that the Louvre ivory was either copied from the Minneapolis example or from the same design. So different is the quality of the two works, that it is difficult to believe that the Louvre ivory is a late or degenerate work of the same shop, and it is more probable that it comes from a second shop using the same design.Besides buying, selling, or exchanging designs to keep up-to-date and competitive, the ivory carvers had the problem of satisfying a variety of customers' tastes and purses. For instance, at the time the large Passion diptychs were in vogue, some patrons could not afford such extravagant objects while others wanted a smaller ivory to serve a more humble purpose. From the Passion atelier, there are a number of works of identical size but also some of smaller proportions made from the same models in the same technique. In the Louvre, for instance, is a tiny diptych with just two scenes, the Ascension and Pentecost, which closely parallel those at the top of the Minneapolis diptych. Certain figures, like the Virgin in the Ascension, are similar in detail, while in other figures the drapery has been varied and the attitudes slightly changed. The relationship has recently been pointed out by Gaborit-Chopin.17 Another diptych from the Passion atelier is of intermediate size with four scenes, the Ascension and Pentecost above the Nativity and the Adoration.18 The number of arches was reduced to four, but the scenes follow the same designs, though the groom of the Three Kings finds little enough space in the reduced format. Other format variations in works from a single shop are less well understood. For instance, why does the Minneapolis ivory read from the bottom to the top, when a second ivory from the shop, now in the Walters Art Gallery, reads from the top to the bottom? The variation could have been a response to the taste of the patron who ordered it, perhaps, or it is conceivable that the master of the workshop decided that it was preferable to have the scenes dealing with heaven at the top and those with the Infancy of Christ at the bottom. There were no hard-and-fast rules governing order in the fourteenth century, and in other works of art, such as stained glass, it was usual to read the stories from the bottom upwards.The answer to the question of order, I believe, is not to be sought in obscure work practices but in the conventional and traditional influence of architectural sculpture. The main tympanum of Notre Dame at Mantes, for instance, is arranged in three registers reading from the bottom to the top.19 Like the Minneapolis ivory, it begins at the lower left with the Annunciation, followed by the Visitation, the Nativity, and the Three Kings. The second register begins, as does the ivory, on the left with the Arrest of Christ. The major subject at the top of the tympanum is a large multifigured Crucifixion scene. Mantes was completed in the year 1300 and could easily have been known to the Passion atelier, as it is only thirty-six miles west of Paris.The Minneapolis diptych also reads from the bottom, beginning at the left in each register. The first scene in the left wing is the Annunciation, which is divided from the Nativity by a thin colonnette. In the right wing is the Adoration of the Magi with a groom attending the horses of the Three Kings. In the middle tier, the scene of the Arrest, coupled with Judas hanging, fills the entire left wing; in the right wing are the Crucifixion and the Resurrection. The uppermost level shows the Ascension and the Pentecost, each occupying the full width of the panel.Two other diptychs from the Passion workshop follow the plan of the Minneapolis example precisely. They are in the British Museum and the Dutuit Collection of the Petit Palais, Paris. A comparison of the three works reveals small changes in each—in drapery folds, in the pattern on the sarcophagus, and in such details as the Virgin's right arm in the Nativity. In the Petit Palais example, the horses of the three kings stretch their necks from a stable, which does not appear in the others. The groups of three Marys in the Crucifixion differ in posture from the Minneapolis and Berlin diptychs. These types of changes must have come about partly by chance, partly by design, and partly to vary the routine of copying the same scene over and over again.The Walters diptych differs from the Passion workshop diptychs in several respects. It reads from the top rather than from the bottom. The column is omitted between the Annunciation and the Nativity; the Christ Child is completely swaddled in that example but bare-headed and bare-chested in the others. The Crucifixion is of a completely different and somewhat older type, with the figure of Christ seen between the single figures of Mary and John. In the Pentecost, there is an unusual and charming detail in the pairing of Mary and the praying St. John, while Mary is the central figure in all of the other versions. Several of these details suggest that the Walters diptych might be a little earlier than the others, but an examination of the Arrest scene poses exactly the opposite view.The subject that changes most in these diptychs produced by the Passion atelier is the Betrayal of Judas or the Arrest of Christ. We have already noted that the Minneapolis scene is closely allied to that of the Berlin Passion diptych, and it is interesting to compare the varying format of the scene in other works carved in the same workshop.If we assume, as Koechlin and others since his time have done, that the Passion series is slightly earlier than the diptychs with scenes of the Infancy, Passion, and Afterlife of Christ, then the composition of the Arrest scene in the Berlin ivory with apostles to the left of the central Betrayal group would represent the earliest arrangement in use by the workshop. A second ivory from the Passion atelier helps to confirm this. It is a smaller, four-scene ivory in the Metropolitan Museum in which the Arrest is placed beneath three arches and the figure of St. Peter repeats the characteristic drapery of the group. The ivory seems to be by a different hand than that from Berlin, but the essential elements are comparable. There is one apostle to the left of the Betrayal group and the head of another behind St. Peter. The arresting soldier is similar and wears a cap in both compositions, but the man behind him in the Metropolitan ivory is also wearing a cap and holds a club aloft. It is a helmeted soldier with a shield who holds his club aloft in the Berlin example.In the Minneapolis ivory the Apostles have disappeared from the composition of the Arrest, and the soldier with the battle-ax replaces them. The figure behind the arresting soldier is now neither armored nor threatening with a club but reduced to a head and shoulders. The group of Christ, Judas, and Malchus is placed centrally under the middle arch of the arcade in all three of these ivories.In the ivories from the Petit Palais, the British Museum, and the Walters Art Gallery, a further transformation takes place in the Arrest scene. The arresting soldier becomes the most important figure, pushing the Christ-Judas-Malchus group to the left and out from under the central arch. In the Petit Palais example, the figure leans far to the left, revealing the upper torso of the helmeted soldier with club and shield. In the British Museum version of the subject, the arresting soldier is emphasized by his grim face, short, ragged hair, and his garment, which lacks the deep folds below the waist. In that ivory, the second soldier has more space and is now seen full length, with his shield and club.In the Walters Art Gallery example, the arresting soldier has taken the central spotlight in the scene and rises to his full height beneath the central arch. Christ and Judas are now firmly placed beneath the second arch, and the second soldier has taken a full-length pose with helmet, pole-ax, and shield. Interestingly, the head peering from the second row, seen instead of the soldier in the Minneapolis ivory, appears in the Walters version over the shoulder of the full-length soldier. In all of the examples but the British Museum diptych, one may note that the leg of the second soldier appears between those of the arresting soldier's bare legs in identical format. For some unknown reason, the right leg of the British Museum soldier is not shown.One can theorize that the master of the Passion workshop programmed a series of changes in the Arrest scene. Perhaps he was seeking a more dynamic relation of the figures. Certainly some of the unusual versions in which the soldier has become central are expressive sculpturally.The posture and dominant role of the arresting soldier are not found solely in ivories from the Passion workshop, however. The same figure appears in many other Passion diptychs by other shops, for instance in a six-scene, two-tiered diptych in the Metropolitan Museum where only the designs of the Arrest and the Resurrection scenes are closely related to the Passion workshop.20 A similar arresting soldier appears in an unusual diptych with quatrefoil frames for the Passion scenes in the Louvre, which is close in figure style to the Passion atelier.21 A third example, with no stylistic or programmatic relationship to the Passion atelier, is in the Musée de Cluny and repeats the position of the arresting soldier.22 The posture of the soldier, which becomes so exaggerated in the Passion atelier ivories, is not, however, an original invention, but has surprisingly early manifestations.There were two basic schemes for the posture of the arresting soldier in the early Middle Ages. The “western” model, so named by Millet, showed a single soldier with his arm outstretched in a straight line as the gesture of arrest. This type appears in a mosaic in St. Apollinare Nuovo in Ravenna about 520-530 A.D., and it continues through Byzantine examples down to Duccio's Majestas.23 From Duccio the straight-armed arresting figure came to France in the Hours of Jeanne d'Evreux by the court illuminator Jean Pucelle, whose designs so dominated French manuscript painting for half a century that the straight-armed tradition was usually followed in manuscripts. A fine example of the straight-armed soldier of the early second quarter of the fourteenth century is shown making the arrest in the Victor of Capoue, Concordance of the Gospels.24The second tradition for the arresting soldier, designated the “eastern” version by Millet, included in the scene among other details the figure of Malchus.25 This version appears already in Romanesque France in one of the capitals of Notre-Dame La Daurade in Toulouse, of the early twelfth century, where the arresting soldier in a short tunic seizes Christ in precisely the same manner, his left hand on Christ's sleeve, his right arm thrust up into the air and grasping the shoulder.26The figure appears early in the ivory repertoire of the thirteenth century and may be noted in several ivories of the Soissons group. An example in the Walters Art Gallery shows the figure with short skirt, cap, and the bent, left arm gesture. The right arm is not shown.Closer in date to the Passion group is the tympanum of the Portail de la Calende at Rouen Cathedral completed about 1300, where the arresting figure is portrayed in the same fashion as in the Passion ivories. The figure, dressed with cap and short skirt with deep folds, makes the familiar gesture of arrest, and as in the Soissons ivories, the right arm is not shown. It is notable, however, that a second soldier raising a threatening club is in the background, and that the foot between the bare legs of the arresting figure is shown, as it is in the ivories. The tympanum also includes the Ascension and Pentecost scenes, the latter being close in design to the Passion ivories.One problem seems to have plagued the Passion master's workshop throughout its history. That is the problem of consistent scale among the scenes. Already in the Berlin diptych, the figure of Christ on the cross is too small for the other figures, and by contrast the kneeling centurion is overscaled. In the Walters diptych, the figures of the Crucifixion group are smaller than those in the other scenes. In the Arrest composition throughout the group, the arresting soldier gets larger and more important until, in the Walters ivory, he dominates the entire diptych.The Minneapolis ivory appears to be one of the best balanced works from the atelier. The major group of Christ, Judas, and Malchus holds the central position in the Arrest scene, and the figure scale in the Crucifixion is better handled than in the other examples. This perhaps shows a progressive understanding of the scale problem or may be attributed to a more sensitive hand in its production. The figure of Christ in the earlier works, such as the Berlin diptych and the four-scene example from the Metropolitan, has the poorest scale relationship with the other scenes.The Passion diptychs are thought to have been most popular during the reign of Charles V (1364-80), but there are examples from other shops that may be as late as 1400.27 The concept and subject matter of the diptychs remained in vogue for at least forty years, and they were produced far beyond the limits of Paris. A diptych now in Madrid has been attributed to a Rhenish atelier,28 and there are a number of examples in unidentified styles that have not yet been localized.The figure style of the Passion master's workshop is related to the stone sculpture of the early fourteenth century. The rendering of the heads, hair, and beards can be compared to figures from the Portail de la Calende,29 from Soissons,30 from Jumièges, and St. Jacques l'Hôpital in Paris.31 The last two monuments are the documented work of the shop of Robert de Lannoy and Guillaume de Nourriche, of 1326-27 in Paris and 1332-35 at Jumièges. In these works, as in the ivories, the hair and beards are rendered in reversed curves, giving similar framing patterns around the face and the openings of the beards. While the ivory carvers may have been conscious of the more distant monuments, like the portal of Rouen, they were certainly familiar with the statues for the chapel of St. Jacques l'Hôpital, which was only a few blocks from their Paris workshops near the Porte St. Denis.The drapery style of the ivories can be found in the stone sculpture at Mantes, where, as has already been pointed out, the composition of the tympanum is closely related.32 The drapery of the angel of the Annunciation at Mantes is similar in its arrangement to that of the angels in the Petit Palais and Walters diptychs. The Adoration of the Kings is compositionally the same at Mantes and in the ivories, and the drapery of the third king at Mantes is closely paralleled by that of the king in the British Museum ivory. The figure of the arresting soldier at Mantes is badly damaged, but the tucked-up skirt and deep drapery folds can be seen, as they are in the same figure in the Portail de la Calende at Rouen. The unanswered question is why the figure style of stone sculpture finished between 1300 and 1335 should have taken so long to reach the ivory ateliers.The Minneapolis ivory typifies the work of the most active atelier in Paris, that of the so-called Passion master. It belongs to the second group of diptychs from the shop and includes the Infancy and Afterlife scenes. The date of the second group is currently placed in the last quarter of the fourteenth century by most writers, possibly 1375-90. The number of hands and individual masters involved in this workshop may never be known, and the name of the Passion master himself is not preserved. Yet the shop left the richest inheritance of ivories from a single source in the hundred and fifty years that Paris dominated the production of ivories in Europe.Richard H. Randall, Jr. retired as director of the Walters Art Gallery, Baltimore, in 1981.Endnotes
  1. Exposition retrospective de l'art français de 1900 (Paris: Librairie de l'art ancien, 1900), p. 19, no. 133; Gaston Migeon, “L'exposition retrospective de l'art français,” Revue de l'art ancien et modern 1 (1900): 460; Gaston Migeon, “La Collection de M. Paul Garnier,” Les arts 53 (May 1906): 13; Medieval, Renaissance and Later Tapestries, Works of Art, and Furniture (New York: Sotheby Parke Bernet, 25 March 1972), lot 97.
  2. Raymond Koechlin, Les ivoires gothiques français (Paris: Auguste Picard, 1924), 1:7ff.
  3. Margaret H. Longhurst, Catalogue of Carvings in Ivory (London: Board of Education, 1929), 2: no. 211-1865, frontispiece.
  4. Max Seidel, “Die Elfenbeinmadonna im Domschatz zu Pisa,” Mitteilungen des Kunsthistorisches Instituts in Florenz 16 (1972): 1-50.
  5. Koechlin, Ivoires gothiques 1:116-46.
  6. Ibid., 147-63.
  7. Ibid., 164-82.
  8. Jules Labarte, Inventaire du mobilier de Charles V (Paris: Imp. Nationale, 1879), no. 2763.
  9. Koechlin, Ivoires gothiques 1:285.
  10. Ibid.
  11. Ibid., 1:282-98.
  12. Metropolitan Museum, 50:195 (Bulletin 10 [May 1951]:106); Longhurst, Carvings in Ivory 2: pl. 20, no. 291-1867.
  13. For the Boston terra-cottas, see Richard H. Randall, Jr., Masterpieces of Ivory from the Walters Art Gallery (New York: Hudson Hills Press, 1985), 180-82, fig. 40; Musée Curtius, La Nativité (Liège: Comité liégois, 1959), no. 11, p. 55.
  14. Koechlin, Ivoires gothiques 3: no. 821.
  15. Helga Kreutermann Eggemann, Das Skizzenbuch der Jacques Daliwe (Munich: Bruckmann, 1964), pl. 8.
  16. Grand Palais, Paris, Les fastes du gothique, le siècle de Charles V, 9 October 1981-1 February 1982 (Paris: Editions de Reunion des musées nationaux, 1981), no. 210.
  17. Ibid., no. 161.
  18. Koechlin, Ivoires gothiques 3, no. 813.
  19. Hartmut Krohm, “Die Skulptur der Querhausfassaden an der Kathedrale von Rouen,” Aachener Kunstblatter 40 (1971), fig. 81.
  20. Koechlin, Ivoires gothiques 3, no. 372.
  21. Les fastes du gothique, no. 160.
  22. Koechlin, Ivoires gothiques 3, no. 805.
  23. Gabriel Millet, Recherches sur l'iconographie de l'évangile aux XIVe, XVe, et XVIe siècles (Paris: Fontemoing, 1916), 326-41. Millet has the most complete discussion; see also Gertrud Schiller, Ikonographie der christlichen Kunst (Güterslohe: G. Mohn, 1968), 2: fig. 158.
  24. Bibliothèque Royale, Brussels, Ms. 11053-54, F. 212, illustrated in Les fastes du gothique, no. 236.
  25. Millet, Recherches, 333ff.
  26. Marie Lafargue, Les chapiteaux du cloître de Notre-Dame La Daurade (Paris: Picard, 1940), pl. 11, fig. 3.
  27. Randall, Masterpieces of Ivory, no. 318.
  28. Danielle Gaborit-Chopin, Ivoires du moyen-âge (Fribourg: Office du Livre, 1978), p. 168, fig. 259.
  29. Krohm, “Skulptur,” fig. 64.
  30. Ibid., fig. 88.
  31. François Baron, “Le décor sculpté et peint de l'hôpital Saint-Jacques-aux-Pèlerins,” Bulletin Monumental 133, no. 1 (1975):29-72.
  32. Krohm, “Skulptur,” fig. 81.
Referenced Works of Art
  1. Diptych with Scenes of the Infancy, Passion, and Afterlife of Christ
    French, 1375-1390
    Ivory
    H. 8 3/16 in., W. 8 3/4 in.
    The Minneapolis Institute of Arts
    Gift of Mr. and Mrs. John E. Andrus III, Atherton and Winifred W. Bean, and an anonymous donor.
    The Centennial Fund, 83.72
  2. Diptych with Scenes of Christ's Passion
    French, 1365-1380
    Ivory
    Staatliche Museen, Berlin
  3. The Arrest of Christ, detail of an ivory diptych
    French, late XIV Century
    The Louvre, Paris
  4. The Arrest of Christ, detail of an ivory diptych
    The Minneapolis Institute of Arts, 83.72
  5. Diptych with the Ascension of Christ and the Pentecost
    French, 1375-1390
    Ivory
    The Louvre, Paris
  6. Diptych with Scenes of the Infancy, Passion, and Afterlife of Christ
    French, 1375-1390
    Ivory
    The Walters Art Gallery, Baltimore
  7. Diptych with Scenes of the Infancy, Passion, and Afterlife of Christ
    French, 1375-1390
    Ivory
    Courtesy of the Trustees of the British Museum
  8. Diptych with Scenes of the Infancy, Passion, and Afterlife of Christ
    French, 1375-1390
    Ivory
    Musée du Petit Palais (Dutuit Collection), Paris
  9. The Arrest of Christ, detail of an ivory diptych
    French, 1365-1380
    The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York
    Gift of J. Pierpont Morgan, 1917
  10. The Arrest of Christ, detail of an ivory diptych
    Musée du Petit Palais, Paris
  11. The Arrest of Christ, detail of an ivory diptych
    Courtesy of the Trustees of the British Museum
  12. The Arrest of Christ, detail of an ivory diptych
    The Walters Art Gallery, Baltimore
  13. The Arrest of Christ, detail of an ivory diptych of the Soissons group
    French, 1350-1370
    The Walters Art Gallery, Baltimore
  14. Tympanum of the Portail de la Calende, Rouen Cathedral
    French, about 1300
    Limestone
    Martin-Sabon © Arch. Phot.
    Paris S.P.A.D.E.M.
  15. Head of an Apostle, Abbey of Jumièges
    French, 1332-1335
    Limestone
    Robert Branner photograph
  16. Ascension, detail of an ivory diptych
    The Minneapolis Institute of Arts, 83.72
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Source: Richard H. Randall, Jr., "An Ivory Diptych," <i>The Minneapolis Institute of Arts Bulletin</i> 66 (1983-1986): 2-17.
Rights: ©MIA
Added to Site: March 10, 2009