Ancient Andeans of all classes used qeros for toasting with chicha, or maize beer, during feasts. Social drinking was central to Inka society. Inka rulers provided chicha as a gesture of generosity and reciprocity to the subjects whose labor and resources they commanded. Ritual drinking was also important in forming alliances with neighboring societies, and a conquered ruler’s refusal to drink was a costly mistake. Qeros were typically made in pairs as a reflection of Inka beliefs in duality and reciprocity; however subordinates often received a smaller vessel.