abstract--Art that looks
as if it contains little or no recognizable or realistic forms from
the physical world. Focus on formal elements such as colors, lines,
or shapes. Artists often "abstract" objects by changing, simplifying,
or exaggerating what they see.
aerial view--A view
from the sky of the landscape or objects below, same as birds-eye-view.
image, mythical figure, or story that refers to something else entirely--usually
large concepts such as good and evil or comments on the human condition.
Armory Show--An exhibition
(actually titled The International Exhibition of Modern Art)
that was held in the armory in New York from February 17- March
15, 1913. It subsequently traveled to Boston and Chicago. The exhibition,
which was seen by more than 400,000 people was controversial, but
a major cultural event of its time. The Armory Show included approximately
1,200 works that introduced the American public to Post-Impressionist
and Cubist art.
three-dimensional collage created from a group of everyday objects,
many times pre-made and put together in a specific way.
of creating a work of art without the use of thought or the conscious
new and innovative art or artists that depart from tradition to
experiment with a new style, technique, or subject matter. From
the French word for "vanguard."
artists who struggled against conformity, mechanization, and materialism
of mainstream culture during the 1950s and 1960s.
shapes that suggest living organisms.
from above as if by a flying bird, same as aerial view.
that focuses on the idea expressed and the process of creating the
consumer--Person who buys
contrast--The use of opposing
elements such as light and dark, large and small, smooth and rough.
Shows differences between elements such as the light and dark parts
of a picture.
crest--A symbol representing
families or clans, groups of people who share the same ansestors.
movement which emerged in Europe in 1916 as a reaction against the
inhumanity of World War I; interpreted irrational and nihilistic,
or hopeless, social forces by creating ridiculing images; and used
decode--To translate an unknown
idea, word, or image into an understandable idea or image.
first decades of the Renaissance, which began in Italy about 1400-1450,
in which a revival or "rebirth" of learning from Classical Greece
and Rome took place in the arts, literature, and sciences.
expressionism (with a lowercase "e") refers to any art
that emphasizes strong emotions or feelings. Shortly before World
War I, a group of artists in Germany set as their goal the depiction
of emotional and psychological concerns of themselves and their
times. Some of these German Expressionists (with an uppercase "E")
used strong color contrasts, angular simplified forms, and heavy
black outlines to express their anger and hostility; others explored
color and abstraction to express spiritual or mystical ideas.
French term meaning "a wild beast" used to label a group of early
20th century French artists, led by Henri Matisse, who used bright,
unnatural colors and slashing brush strokes to paint images of contemporary
depicts animals or human figures.
Flemish--From a region in
northwestern Europe including parts of southern Netherlands, northern
France and western Belgium. Beginning with the end of the 14th and
beginning of the 15th centuries, Flemish culture was at a peak and
Flemish painters achieved a high degree of skill especially in depicting
realistic landscapes using aerial perspective.
formalist--An artist who
focuses on the visual elements of art--its color, line, shape, size,
structure--to give it its form. Generally, but not always, a formalist
emphasizes these elements over content, or subject.
from objects already in existence; objects found and put together
by the sculptor.
funk art--Art that is visceral
and earthy; portrays the subject in a deliberately distasteful way;
sometimes pushes the limits of "good taste" (from Beat artists)
of the 1950s and 1960s.
with regular contours, and straight edges such as squares, triangles,
horizon line--The line
created where the sky and earth appear to meet.
of symbols and their meanings.
infrared film--A special
kind of film that is sensitive to infrared radiation, which is in
the spectrum of light but is not visible to the human eye. Common
photographic film records the light and dark tones of a scene as
they would ordinarily be seen by the human eye. Infrared film records
a scene with a shift in tones, which can suggest an unreal, fantasylike
drawing, or other depiction of natural scenery.
larva--Worm-like stage of
Medieval--Related to the
Middle Ages--a period in history between the last emperor of Rome,
475 A.D., and the Renaissance, about 1450. Art production during
this period was dominated by the Catholic Church.
from one form or shape to another.
Mythology-- A collection
of stories belonging to a group of people, which addresses their
origin, history and heroes.
prefix meaning "new," here referring to a revival, or renewed
interest in German Expressionism and expressive art in general by
American and European artists in the 1980s.
prefix meaning "new," here referring to a revival, or renewed interest
in Surrealism in the 1980s.
that is purely an arrangement of line, color, shape, form or texture
and that does not show any recognizable person, place or thing.
pertaining to living organisms or something from the natural world.
In art, organic shapes are derived from natural forms.
ovoid--A design element used
in Northwest Coast Indian art, described as a rounded rectangle,
angular oval, or an eggshape.
of techniques used to create the illusion of three-dimensional space
on a flat surface by mimicking the effects of distance on human
perception. Perspective shows depth and make objects appear three-dimensional
on a two-dimensional surface.
A style of painting in which an image is created in such exact detail
that it looks like a photograph; uses everyday
subject matter, and often is larger than life.
Pop Art--An art movement associated
with the 1960s in the United States in which artists incorporated
imagery and/or media from popular culture such as advertisements,
mass produced objects, movies, and comics.
label given to a diverse group of French artists: Paul Cezanne,
Vincent van Gogh, Paul Gauguin, and Georges Seurat, who were working
in the 1880s and 1890s. These artists shared a dissatisfaction with
Impressionism's tendency to blur shapes and forms with loose brush
strokes, but each explored their own individual approaches to form
and expression in art. The Post-Impressionists are credited for
laying the groundwork for the many modern movements that followed.
potlatch--An important ceremony
of the Northwest Coast Indians in which the person hosting the potlatch
gives away his or her possessions. It is a way for people to share
their wealth with the community, to strengthen their leadership,
and to earn the respect of others.
method of treating mental disorders through investigating emotional
conflicts and childhood repressions by getting the patient to talk
freely, examining his or her dreams.
pupa--Inactive cocoon stage
of butterfly development.
style of art that represent nature accurately as seen by the human
an object in nature in recognizable form.
on a camera which regulates the amount of time the film is exposed
process which occurs without awareness, or conscious perception
on the part of the individual.
in art and literature from 1924 to 1945 where artists attempted
to give visual representation to dreams, fantasies, and the unconscious
mind. Emphasized real objects in unreal situations, surprise, contradiction
symbol--Usually an image
that stands for an idea or object.
of using something, usually an object or sign, to represent something
else, usually intangible--such as an idea or concept.
on both sides of a two sided image.
text--Text can be written (word),
visual (art) or ambient (body language) used to communicate.
of having height, width, and depth. Painters use illusionary techniques
to create a sense of depth on a flat surface which has only height
and width (two-dimensional).
urban--Characteristic of a
city, usually with many people living very close together, with