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Inner Worlds


Art and Artists
 Arthur Dove
 Richard Hunt
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 Betye Saar
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 Yves Tanguy
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What is Art? Environment Identity Designing Spaces and Places
Richard Hunt
Richard Hunt, Transformation Mask Click to larger image
Richard Hunt
Transformation Mask, 1993, 1935
cedar, pigment, cloth, string, and wood
13 in. x 12 1/4 in.
MIA
 
About the Art

Northwest Coast
[Click on the map for a larger
version]

The Kwakiutl people come from the Northwest Coast region of North America. This area is one of the world's richest natural environments. It consists of a narrow strip of dense forests less than 150 miles wide, surrounded by snow-capped mountains, islands, and ocean inlets. It stretches along the Pacific Ocean from the Alaskan Panhandle to northern California.

A transformation mask is a large mask with movable parts that can be opened and closed. These complex masks are worn by Kwakiutl dancers in special ceremonies. This transformation mask was made by Richard Hunt, a 20th-century Kwakiutl artist. While this particular mask was made for sale, Hunt made a similar mask for a family dance at a winter potlatch and wears it himself while participating in the ceremonies.

The use of transformation masks is rooted in ancient Kwakiutl traditions. According to Kwakiutl creation stories, there was once a time when birds, fish, animals and humans differed only in skin covering and had the ability to transform themselves at will. All living beings were unified and animals could take on human form, just as humans could become animals, birds, fish, and mythical creatures. According to Kwakiutl belief, when dancers are wearing these masks, they are transformed into the spirits represented on the mask.

Hunt, Transformation Mask, closed
Richard Hunt,
Transformation Mask (closed)

At the beginning of the dance, this mask would be closed, showing the image of the raven that is represented on the outside of the mask. Raven is a central character in Northwest Coast stories. He is believed to be the creator of the physical world and the bringer of light. Raven has supernatural powers, and is also a "trickster" who gets what he wants by playing mischievous tricks on others, changing his shape at will.

During key moments of the dance the dancer pulls hidden strings to open the mask, revealing the carved images inside of a human face flanked by a two-headed serpent (see above). The serpent is called Sisuitl (SEE-shoe) and is associated with the protection of warriors. Sisuitl is often represented with a human head between two serpent heads, as it is here. Together the images on the mask refer to the transformations of human to raven, raven to human, human to Sisuitl, and Sisuitl to human.

Raven and Sisuitl also are personally significant to Hunt. Raven is the special animal and main crest of his father's clan. Sisuitl is the special animal and main crest of his mother's clan. Worn at family dances, a mask like this one represents Hunt's family history by showing his ancestry.

OvoidThe bold designs and forms used on this mask are distinctive of the Northwest Coast style of decoration. The painted images on this mask use abstract designs to represent animal and human images. The artist created a complex design using two basic shapes--the ovoid and the U-form.

Hunt uses traditional Kwakiutl techniques when carving and painting masks. This mask is made from red cedar, a soft wood favored by Kwakiutl artists for its clear and even grain. Hunt used traditional hand tools, andadheres to traditional colors: black, red-brown, and green. Before commercial paints were available, Kwakiutl artists used natural earth pigments, such as red ochre, charcoal, and blue-green clay. Hunt, however, prefers to use acrylic paints because they dry more quickly.

Vocabulary Terms

abstract--Art that looks as if it contains little or no recognizable or realistic forms from the physical world. Focus on formal elements such as colors, lines, or shapes. Artists often "abstract" objects by changing, simplifying, or exaggerating what they see.

crest--A symbol representing families or clans, groups of people who share the same ansestors.

ovoid--A design element used in Northwest--Art that looks as if it contains little or no recognizable or realistic forms from the physical world. Focus on formal elements such as colors, lines, or shapes. Artists often "abstract" objects by changing, simplifying, or exaggerating what they see. Coast Indian art, described as a rounded rectangle, and angular oval, or an eggshape.

potlatch--An important ceremony of the Northwest Coast Indians in which the person hosting the potlatch gives away his or her possessions. It is a way for people to share their wealth with the community, to strengthen their leadership, and to earn the respect of others.

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