| abstract--Art that looks
as if it contains little or no recognizable or realistic forms from
the physical world. Focus on formal elements such as colors, lines,
or shapes. Artists often "abstract" objects by changing, simplifying,
or exaggerating what they see.
scientist who studies the life and customs of past cultures by examining
their material remains, usually artifacts such as utensils, stone
carvings and architecture.
canal--A man-made waterway
built for passage from one place to another.
cropping refers to the practice of establishing the edge of an image.
Often a close-cropped photograph cuts parts of the central image
off for expressive or compositional purposes.
early 20th Century style of art characterized by overlapping picture
planes, multiple perspectives; analytic cubism
looks at all views at once; synthetic cubism is basically two-dimensional.
movement which emerged in Europe in 1916 as a reaction against the
inhumanity of World War I; interpreted irrational and nihilistic,
or hopeless, social forces by creating ridiculing images; and used
art and literature, a tendency to subvert or pull apart and examine
existing conventions having to do with meaning and individualism.
Whether using language, images, or building elements, deconstructionists
raise questions about meaning, materials, forms and other aspects
of artistic expression.
during the 1930s of drastic decline in the economy characterized
by decreasing business activity, falling prices, and unemployment.
animal or plant that is in danger of extinction or ceasing to exist.
conditions, circumstances and influences surrounding and effecting
the development of an organism.
environmental or ecological art--Art
that focuses on human interaction with their environments such as
pollution and land use.
that employs bright colors; distorted representation; expression
of emotion; and commentary on social issues.
Fauvism--An art style characterized
by the bold distortion of form and the use of strong, pure color.
Federal Arts Project (FAP)--A
program organized by the U. S. government in 1935 during the Depression
designed to employ artists by placing them on the federal payroll
and in return having the works they produced, which included murals,
photographs, archival drawings, and easel paintings, submitted to
the government for use in public buildings. By the time it was dissolved
in 1943, the FAP had employed ten thousand artists.
with regular contours, and straight edges such as squares, triangles,
gondola--A long, narrow
boat used on the canals in Venice, Italy.
impasto--A painting technique
in which the paint is applied very thickly on the canvas.
movement in painting in which the emphasis on light and color, loose
brush strokes, ordinary subject matter; creates the "impression"
of a moment in time. Dabs and strokes of color are used to depict
the natural appearances of objects and reflected light.
or animal natural to a particular region.
of printing that uses stone (or a metal plate), a grease pencil
or brush, and water and ink to produce a number of prints from one
drawing or painting.
Machine Age--The early
1900s focus on the positive aesthetic and social qualities of the
factory and cityscape.
modern, modernism--In art
history, this term refers to the philosophies of art made in Europe
and the United States during a period roughly from the 1860s through
the 1970s when certain artists began to take radical steps away
from traditional art in order to be deliberately different from
the dominant, official taste. Modern art or modernism is characterized
by changing attitudes about art, an interest in contemporary events
as subjects, personal artistic expression, and freedom from realism.
Modernism can be seen as artists' attempts to come to terms with
the urban, industrial and secular society that emerged during the
19th century in Western society.
who studies plants and animals from the natural world.
pertaining to living organisms or something from the natural world.
In art, organic shapes are derived from natural forms.
of techniques used to create the illusion of three-dimensional space
on a flat surface by mimicking the effects of distance on human
perception. Perspective shows depth and make objects appear three-dimensional
on a two-dimensional surface.
Postmodern--A term used
to describe a diversity of styles and mediums explored by artists
beginning in the 1970s. Initially applied to architecture that reacted
to geometric modern styles, Postmodernism is often ornamental and
borrows from past art and archtitectural styles, putting these elements
in new combinations and contexts.
style of art that represent nature accurately as seen by the human
rural--Or or related to a
small town or countryside.
Russian art movement founded in 1913 in which abstract geometric
forms and industrial materials were used to reflect modern machinery
and technology; integrated creativity and industrial production.
shade--A gradation of a color
mixed with black.
shaman--A holy man or woman
who is said to have contact with the gods or spirits.
tint--A gradation of a color
mixed with white.
type of art using realistic and accurate detail to record a scene
or particular place.
urban--Connected to a city,
with many people living in close quarters, and businesses nearby
veduta--A painting, drawing,
or print of a particular view of a town or city.
which is not yet completed.